Socially-psychological preconditions accidents

Preconditions_accidents

Comprehensive analysis of the circumstances of the accident shows that a significant number of them in one way or another connected with the wrong actions of the employees. Incorrect operations are divided into error – unintentional actions caused by psycho-physiological and situational factors (poor working conditions, deficiencies in the design of equipment, and so on. D.) And conscious infringement.

 It is well known that not all the wrong actions lead to injury. That is why they often admit, hoping to “maybe”. But it must be borne in mind that such actions always create a traumatic situation, dramatically increasing the likelihood of an accident.

In the analysis of accidents and their causes release conditions. The reason – this is something that directly caused the accident. The premise – a prerequisite, “favorable environment” in which the action unfolds causes. Prevention of accidents – it is their causes and prerequisites.

Socially-psychological factors: the relationship between the collective and group norms, the collective attitude towards the dangers and measures to prevent it – affect workers’ exposure to accidents.

For example, depressed mood caused by the conflict with the superintendent, may interfere with the working properly respond to an emergency (for example, due to a sudden failure of equipment), which will lead to an accident. Here the conflict and the resulting emotional intensity worker increase its exposure to injury, even in the absence of natural predisposition. In a conflict situation, if undeserved insult even the calmest person sometimes loses his temper. The lack of standards developed mutual atmosphere unfriendly rivalry prevent young worker to seek help in a difficult situation to a more experienced workers. It also creates the preconditions for the emergence of traumatic situations. Frequent accidents caused by deliberate violation of safety rules, lack of coherence, the wrong direction and supervision of the conduct of operations. This means that the accidents that occur for various reasons, have, as a rule, certain socio-psychological conditions.

Hence, optimization of interpersonal relations skills of effective communication, mutual understanding, the formation of positive individual attitudes and group norms – is effective prevention of occupational injuries.

Work, especially the young, can go on a risky step, for example, work at height without a safety net means to pass a brave man and a hero among his comrades. But if this work is to know that such an act would make it in the eyes of fellow “incompetent braggart,” “unreliable guy”, it is unlikely to be violating safety rules.

Group norms are formed on the basis of individual installations opinions. The most common view, particularly if its leaders hold becomes the norm group. “Dissenters” team members tend to change their opinion according to group norms, if they are interested in membership. This fact must be considered in the formation of positive group norms with respect to the security measures, involving the most respected her, loved fellow workers.

The need for compliance with safety regulations, indeed, often causes a negative attitude. Numerous surveys show that safety rules are often considered working as something external to the production process, senseless, obstructing its implementation. By this result and fuzzy, and sometimes difficult to understand the wording of the rules, and artificial separation under “Security” in the course of vocational training. Obviously, it is impossible to form a class skill, but on the other – to make it “safe.”

A negative impact on the formation of a collective position with respect to the safety rules and boring traditional forms of instruction. It is understandable the negative attitude of working for the organization of instruction, the form of the material is automatically transferred to them for the maintenance, depreciate it, creates psychological barriers to the rules, increasing the likelihood of traumatic situations.

Rationalization of training, including in the workplace, improving the forms of propaganda of safety rules on the production of not only promote the mastery of professional skills, but also form a positive attitude to safety measures.

Great opportunities to eliminate the socio-psychological prerequisites for occupational injuries lie in the judicious use of sanctions – rewards and punishments.

In everyday preventive work in the preparation of regulations, choosing the sanction, the cornerstone should be put not the fact of an accident, but the fact of violation of the rules of work. That is a measure of guilt and responsibility (penalty) must determine not only the consequences of violations – the existence of an accident and its severity – but the fact of improper actions and related circumstances. For the development of future preventive measures, including the selection of the sanctions, we must first determine what it is – a violation or error. Moreover, the error is also not exempt from liability.

We all know that not every violation leads to injury. There are a great element of randomness that allows the person to adapt to a breach of the rules. When a person knows that will be responsible for its own wrongful act regardless of the occasional successful or unfortunate circumstances, the responsibility it increases dramatically. Direct the contractor is not responsible for the accident and for their own actions. When this becomes the norm, the conventional wisdom, the number of violations is reduced.

To prevent injuries no less, and even more significant positive sanctions to encourage. On payment of accidents and accidents caused by improper actions of employees, yearly planned and spent considerable material resources. Accordingly, no violation gives great savings, increases profit organization. If workers receive part of it is, of course, it increases their interest in the observance of the Code of Conduct.Financial encouragement of employees for absence of violations, not just a “good work” promotes, encourages the observance of the rules, increases safety.

People who have received the award for safe work in the future much less violate safety requirements than fined or deprived of bonuses for breaking the rules.

Developing a system of sanctions in the field of safety, as indeed in many other areas, it must be remembered:

sanctions are effective only when the person and the surrounding know exactly “what”;

Positive sanctions – Prizes and awards, just praise (especially when it is expressed in public), and others. are often more effective than negative, how severe would be the last either.

Managers need to understand the following: accident, because the case is called, due to the large number of factors, which are very difficult to estimate, anticipate, predict the consequences of their combinations. However, on this account and the anticipation based injury prevention as a phenomenon and security at each workplace.

The main task of the heads of various official status (lead levels) – to organize the work of subordinates, to be effective. Efficient work – it is work and productive without damaging the mental and physical health. Consequently, work on safety – an integral part of the job of any leader, specialist higher technical qualifications.