Psychology Safety

Psychology_safety

Occupational injuries are called “disease of XX century”. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), deaths from accidents in our time takes 3rd place after cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Moreover, this “disease” affects mainly young people of working age. Unable to come to terms with the suffering and death that brings people to occupational injuries.

After all, it is to some extent a product of human hands, the costs of technological progress. To heal the society from this terrible “disease” should obviously follow the same path, which is medicine, to learn to fight many diseases considered incurable. To cure a particular person – it means the return of his health again. Cured of the disease society – it means to create conditions under which the disease is almost impossible. This freedom from disease is called prophylaxis. This is – the most important principle of medicine.Prevention of occupational injuries – the only effective method of dealing with it. Before you engage in it as necessary and complicated case, you need to find answers to these questions:
What is occupational injuries that is an accident at work?

What are the reasons accidents happen?

Why natural immunity, which in this case is inherent in every normal person natural instinct of self-preservation, is not able to keep people at least some?

Is there a predisposition to accidents, depending on the inherent properties of the person, if people differ on these properties, or for that matter all the same?

If such property is, what they are and whether they can be identified in situations not related to an accident?

It is necessary to answer these and many other questions to try to answer the main, what we can do to prevent each individual accident and thereby get rid of workplace injuries?

What areas of human knowledge can act here as a “healer”?

  • Occupational Safety and Health
  • Occupational Safety and Health – a state of working conditions in which the possible effects
  • on the running of harmful and dangerous production factors.

Accident – sudden unintended damage to the human body (preventing the normal exercise activities) as a result of exposure to occupational hazards and their own risky behavior.

Occupational injuries – a set of work-related injuries.

Causes of accidents are divided into technical (related to the failure of technical equipment) and organizational (associated with the human factor).

Occupational Safety and Health – a set of economic, organizational and legal measures to ensure the safety of workers in industrial processes.

The main method of protection of labor is the use of safety. Safety should address three main objectives:
the creation of art, at work with which no danger to humans,
the development of special funds to protect people from danger during labor
organization conditions for safe operation, including the training of
people..
Knowledge of safety necessary specialists higher technical qualification, the organizer of production, but enough of this knowledge to ensure safety?

Safety focus sends a material factor labor. However, according to international statistics, the main culprit of accidents is often a working man, not technology. That person, for whatever reason violates the prescribed safety measures during the labor process. Various researchers indicate that the fault of man can be pronounced in the 60-90% of accidents.

It is appropriate to return to the already formulated a question: why people are not mentally normal instinct for self-preservation? Why increases the severity of injuries? According to a leading expert in the psychology of security activities MA Kitty, that contribute to both objective and subjective reasons.

The first reason follows from the analysis of the evolution. Human evolution occurred mainly in the area of ​​the psyche through which to create and improve the instruments of labor. It expands the range of human impact on the world and the range of responses of the outside world. With the advancement of technology the danger is growing faster than improved physiological characteristics of a person, and sometimes he is unable to oppose it.

The second reason is that the rising cost of failure. Sometimes a person simply can not foresee the consequences of their actions. Inaccurate artisan movement could lead to a cut or injury. What can cause inaccurate movement of the pilot or operator of a complex power system, scary even imagine.Modern means of significantly reducing the likelihood of errors, but it increases its price.

A third reason for promoting the growth of injuries, is the adaptation of a person to danger. Taking advantage of the benefits of technology, people get used to it, he forgets about the possible danger.Sometimes a person intentionally for short-term gain, neglecting the danger does not comply with the necessary regulations. After an accident – yet the case for each individual. The pattern of these “cases” only becomes apparent in the analysis of occupational injuries in general.

So, consciously or unconsciously, but the culprit is often injured person regardless of whether he was a victim or someone else.

Man is considered to be the culprit, if his actions (or inactions) were the direct cause of the accident.If an accident occurs, for example, due to breakage of equipment, machinery is considered to be the culprit. But this technique has created a man (possibly in violation of the technology) and finished products for use is also a man (most likely in violation of the rules of preparation). Therefore, such cases probably also be attributed to human error. Thus, there are a number of objective and subjective factors of accidents caused by humans.

Current trends and technological progress make it possible to predict the reduction of injuries by improving equipment. However, since many attempts “to put a muzzle on the machine” does not currently provide sufficient effect, a lot of hope of success in healing humanity from injuries associated with the human sciences, and primarily with psychology.

Psychology Safety

Getting psychological study of injuries in the industry began in the XX century. The first psychological or personal factors in the occurrence of accidents are interested in the high level of occupational injuries among workers “Movers” (motormen, drivers, machinists and so on. N.). The first work in this area was conducted in 1910 in New York in connection with the request of insurance companies that are interested in reducing the cost of paying the victims of accidents.

British researchers occupational injuries in 1919, drew attention to the fact that the group of people doing the same work in the same conditions (in this case it was the assembly of artillery shells), some do not have injuries, others were one or two, and some of the workers were injured quite often.This could be explained by chance, a tendency to repeat the mistakes made or the innate predisposition to accidents. A study of the facts of injury using the method of statistical analysis has led researchers to the conclusion that the existing distribution of accidents based on individual predisposition to them.

Particular attention should be paid to the fact that in this study accounted for all injuries, regardless of gravity, that is. E. Are taken into account and microtrauma (minor cuts, bruises), comprising the majority.

The theory of psychological predisposition to accidents widespread. The most detailed, it was designed by Carl Marbe. He argued that the probability of obtaining human injury can be calculated using specific statistical methods based on the number of previous accidents. This relationship between the number of past and likely future cases called Marbe law or the law of recurrence. Analyzing and interpreting the revealed laws Marbe emphasized that previous accidents are not the cause of the next. The cause of both a common human predisposition to accidents, which includes a variety of psychological and physiological properties. Most of these properties Marbe linked with the ability to switch, t. E. The installation quickly change and adapt to emergent situations. People with a reduced ability to switch the most prone to injury. This predisposition is essentially innate, but it can be changed under the influence of experience and education. The ability to switch setting can be determined experimentally by introducing drastic changes in the conditions of work and assess the impact of such changes on her speed and accuracy performance.

The biggest criticism from opponents caused the approval Marbe a fatal propensity of some people to accidents, and also the method for calculating future accidents. Formula Marbe not received wide practical application. However, the findings of a psychological properties that determine a higher or lower susceptibility of people to accidents, were rejected.

In our country and abroad have been many studies aimed at determining the properties that make up the personal predisposition and the development of tests to identify it in a timely manner.

For practical use of the facts established in the research and application tests had to be developed to solve the problem, general or specific factor is the predisposition to accidents. Can the conclusions reached in the study of certain professions, distribute and to others? Find the answer to this question required further research. With the accumulation of new experimental data, along with the concept of predisposition began to use the concept of vulnerability to the opposite – protection against hazards (travmorezistentnost). Exposure (security) is determined by a large number of variables: gender, age, skills, experience, motivation and character features, and so on. D. It also depends on the predisposition. Exposure can be varied by education, training and so on. N. Predisposition, however, remains unchanged, it can only be more or less successfully compensated for the individual properties.

K. Gurevich proposed to divide all professions into two large groups – the relative and absolute. In relative professions are able to work safely and securely all healthy and trained people. In such occupations (machine operator, painter, weaver, and others.) One can find ways of behavior, methods of work that fit his individual qualities, especially the properties of the nervous system. Here, human adaptation to the work carried out is due to the formation of individual style of activity. In absolute occupations (pilot, diver, climber, etc.) Is securely and safely can by no means all, this requires corresponding professional suitability. There harmonization of man with his profession at the expense of professional selection, and one of the most important indicators of professional competence to work in absolute professions is the availability of appropriate quality of the nervous system.

MA Kotick said that the quality of the working of the nervous system are reflected in the labor process, depending on the mode of operation. In the most general terms, there are three basic operation modes: minimum, optimum and extreme:
a minimum regime related to the solution of the simplest tasks in favorable conditions and low price errors (for example, the driver briefly rides on a broad free highway in good weather);
optimal regime the most typical of these activities, have a relatively high load and duration, requiring alertness (eg, driving a car through the streets of the big city in a busy road),
extreme mode, which occurs when a significant complication of activity (complication of external conditions due emergency situations, unforeseen circumstances or because of a sharp decline in human capabilities, the emergence of high risk and so on. n.). This mode can be the driver in the event of suspension of the car, with the appearance of a very difficult road conditions.

Practice shows that each of the considered mode of activity has its own typical errors and related accidents. In extreme mode errors often due to a lack of human capabilities (or high emotional stress their non-). In the simple mode, the minimum errors occur because people too relaxed, his attention is dispersed – these mistakes are the result of neglect of simple tasks, lack of interest in them. The study of the relationship between those and other categories of errors and individual qualities of people showed the presence of a certain regularity. People with strong nervous system capable of calmer and more productive work in extreme conditions than those whose nervous system is weaker.People are weak type of nervous system in the course of his life and activities gradually develop compensatory mechanisms to enable them, with a deficiency of this function successfully solved the problem of life and labor. These compensatory mechanisms are highly sensitive to external stimuli, high care, diligence.

Various activities have specific requirements for a certain psycho-physiological qualities. In accordance with these requirements distinguish professional qualities. The level of their development and define the unique combination of human security from danger. Therefore, the inability of individuals to avoid accidents when carrying out any type of professional activity should be considered not as a consequence of a fatal susceptibility to injury in general, as well as unsuitable for this type of activity.

Personal qualities are developed and shaped in the activities under the direct influence of the social environment. A person’s ability to resist the danger, especially in the relative professions, this is largely the result of individual development. The focus of the research of psychological factors of occupational injuries was the person in the diversity of its properties.

The first test of Mr. Khan was sent to assess the emotional balance of the subjects and is based on measurements of sensorimotor reactions in terms of gradually increasing complexity. The subjects were asked to press a button when a light signal; if at the same time with a light beep, press the button should not. In the course of the test feed rate signal is gradually increased, and finally, there was a situation in which it was difficult at first, and then it is simply impossible to cope with the task.Unbalanced individuals, as shown by experience, especially emotionally reacted to the complexity of the problems and panic.

The second test used by Mr. Khan, the test measures the ability to interact with a large number of factors, and the allocation among them. Among the scattered poster random numbers needed to find the right and point them in a specified sequence. Thus, it seems possible to distinguish people who are experiencing difficulties in the distribution and concentration on an important subject.

The third test was aimed at assessing endurance and patience subjects who had an hour to put the corresponding figures. In these experiments, people with sufficient exposure is usually detected a gradual decrease in the accuracy and speed of action. The test is insufficient patience to successfully operate a certain point, but then they come and sharply rising emotional shifts as a result of which they quickly lose their ability to continue the test.

The fourth test is designed to assess the risk appetite. The test was conducted at a specially dug for this pit, the bottom of which were scattered shards of broken bottles. The subject was initially provided a glimpse into the moat and make sure that the drop in there – it is unpleasant. Then he was taken to a distance of about 5 meters from the moat, blindfolded and offered to come to the edge of the moat. If the test with the first step has been cautious, or, on the contrary, boldly walked to the edge of the pit, and he had at the last moment to keep from falling, in both cases, according to Mr. Khan, he was prone to accidents. Protected considered by those who take a bold step forward 2-3 (as they are considered safe), then stopped and it was impossible to make the move.

This list of studies on the role of psychophysiological qualities in exposure injuries is far from complete. Similar studies are currently carried out in almost all industries. Summarizing the results, we list the most important physiological parameters that determine susceptibility to injury:

  • the quality of perceptual processes (“field dependence-field independence”),
  • the quality of attention,
  • the level of sensorimotor coordination,
  • especially temperament.

All these figures stem from the most fundamental human characteristics – properties of its nervous system. The properties of the nervous system are purely natural qualities. But it does not forget that man is a self-regulating system capable of in the process of life and activity to develop qualities that allow him to some extent compensate for their shortcomings and make fuller use of its advantages in their chosen activity.

These properties can be studied under conditions not related to the production, by means of special tests. Moreover, the researchers note that people who have often been injured, the very process of testing perceive more emotionally than those who had no injuries.

Properties of character

among the character traits associated with susceptibility to injury, most often referred to as aggression, excessive arrogance, disrespect and lack of sensitivity to others, expressed the ability to empathize and experience, poor discipline, anxiety, indecision, excessive isolation, or, on the contrary, sociability, independence criticality, giperotvetstvennost, risk tolerance.

It is easy to notice that many of these as polar. Perhaps it is impossible to imagine a person who would possess all these qualities simultaneously. In addition, researchers typically emphasize severity properties: excessively or insufficiently. These qualities are associated with susceptibility to injury, only when the power (weakness) of their manifestations beyond the average limits.

And most of them can not be clearly evaluated from the standpoint of social acceptance – good or bad.Do not rely on personal likes and dislikes when trying to assess the human tendency to accidents.Such an assessment can only give an expert in the psychology of safety. The supervisor on the basis of observation and analysis may take a decision on the need to see a specialist, that he has identified the possibility and expediency of attraction of the employee to perform work related to the Group with respect, but with increased risk (such works are, in particular, construction, transport , various types of mining operations and some others), removal from such work, or of the relevant psycho events.

Gender

Practice shows that, ceteris paribus accidents with women generally occur much less frequently than men, despite the fact that the errors in the work of women, in general, there is more. However, such a “superiority” of women is shown only when operating in normal ambient conditions. When the complication of working conditions, particularly in extreme circumstances, reliability and safety of women is significantly reduced. Women also get tired quickly, sensitive to organizational problems, dangerous situations. Thus, women are less likely to create dangerous situations and men in similar situations are better able to avoid accidents. Therefore, to ensure the safety of women should first seek to create normal working conditions, the elimination of the causes of the experience of anxiety and fear.

Longevity and age

Statistics show that among the victims of accidents at work is dominated by young people under the age of 25 years (the first peak of injury). However, an analysis of specific accidents can be concluded that it is appropriate to relate not so much trauma with age, many with experience. So, not some inherent properties of young and lack experience, knowledge, skills, skills often lead to injury .. At the same time, the professional experience of about 5 years there has been a second jump in the number of accidents, caused by negligence. Develop the skills of the worker, experience no injuries increase confidence, create a feeling that he “can do anything.” Unfortunately, this often leads to a reduction of care, reduces professional vigilance. This phenomenon is known as secondary carelessness. One of the most effective measures to prevent secondary carelessness is the more stringent controls on working with the experience of about 5 years from the leadership.

Mental state

action works due not only resistant qualities, but also the time psychophysiological and emotional state. Among these states in the first release fatigue – the complex of physiological changes in the body caused by the labor process, reducing efficiency and creating a conflict between the external demands of work and reduce the possibility of human rights. To resolve this conflict, the body mobilizes domestic resources, moves to a higher energy level of functioning. It is experienced by people as a state of fatigue, the development of which is largely due to the need for work, motivation, interests and so on. D. On the effect of fatigue on exposure to accidents, about 70 years ago well said B. Messiah “accidents caused by fatigue is different no more accidental than the case of typhoid fever, caused by drinking bad water. ”

Exposure of accidents increases significantly the deterioration of the health of workers. A significant influence on it also provides a state of stress. Stress positively affects mobilizuyusche career as long as it did not exceed the critical level. Above this level of self-regulatory mechanisms of the body are broken down to the breakdown of activities. Stress exceeding the critical level is called distress. In a state of distress falls first and foremost precision movements, incorrectly assessed environmental cues, broken control over the process of labor. With the increasing failures weakened volitional function, reduced the possibility of overcoming difficulties. This naturally increases the likelihood of accidents. People have different abilities to resist the distress that can be identified in advance. There are six groups of factors (stressors), generating a state of distress at work:
1. The uncertainty of the working when it is not clear what part of his responsibilities, what is expected from him as a result of work.
2. Insufficient use of or underestimation of the capacity of the worker, when he was entrusted with tasks that complexity is significantly lower abilities.
3. Overload, when the work is too hard or put too much of the working tasks.
4. Lack of resources or data for use in the work.
5. Insecurity further continue.
6. The non-participation, when workers do not have the possibility to self-manifestation in labor, expressing their opinions.

Most of these stress related to organizational and psychosocial. They can be eliminated by creating a favorable psychological climate that is one of the most important tasks of a leader in improving safety.

Socially-psychological preconditions accidents

Comprehensive analysis of the circumstances of the accident shows that a significant number of them in one way or another connected with the wrong actions of the employees. Incorrect operations are divided into error – unintentional actions caused by psycho-physiological and situational factors (poor working conditions, deficiencies in the design of equipment, and so on. D.) And conscious infringement. It is well known that not all wrong actions lead to injury. That is why they often admit, hoping to “maybe”. But it must be borne in mind that such actions always create a traumatic situation, dramatically increasing the likelihood of an accident.

In the analysis of accidents and their causes isolated background. The reason – is that directly caused the accident. The premise – a prerequisite, “favorable environment” in which the action unfolds reasons. Prevention of accidents – it is their causes and prerequisites.

Socially-psychological factors: the relationship between the collective and group norms, the collective attitude towards the dangers and measures to prevent it – affect workers’ exposure to accidents.

For example, depressed mood caused by the conflict with the superintendent, may interfere with the working properly respond to an emergency (for example, due to a sudden failure of equipment), which will lead to an accident. Here the conflict and the resulting emotional intensity worker increase its exposure to injury, even in the absence of natural predisposition. In a conflict situation, if undeserved insult even the calmest person sometimes loses his temper. The lack of standards developed mutual atmosphere unfriendly rivalry prevent young worker to seek help in a difficult situation to a more experienced workers. It also creates the preconditions for the emergence of traumatic situations. Frequent accidents caused by deliberate violation of safety rules, lack of coherence, the wrong direction and supervision of the conduct of operations. This means that the accidents that occur for various reasons, have, as a rule, certain socio-psychological conditions.

Hence, optimization of interpersonal relations skills of effective communication, mutual understanding, the formation of positive individual attitudes and group norms – is effective prevention of occupational injuries.

Work, especially the young, can go on a risky step, for example, work at height without a safety net means to pass a brave man and a hero among his comrades. But if this work is to know that such an act would make it in the eyes of fellow “incompetent braggart,” “unreliable guy”, it is unlikely to be violating safety rules.

Group norms are formed on the basis of individual installations opinions. The most common view, particularly if its leaders hold becomes the norm group. “Dissenters” team members tend to change their opinion according to group norms, if they are interested in membership. This fact must be considered in the formation of positive group norms with respect to the security measures, involving the most respected her, loved fellow workers.

The need for compliance with safety regulations, indeed, often causes a negative attitude. Numerous surveys show that safety rules are often considered working as something external to the production process, senseless, obstructing its implementation. By this result and fuzzy, and sometimes difficult to understand the wording of the rules, and artificial separation under “Security” in the course of vocational training. Obviously, it is impossible to form a class skill, but on the other – to make it “safe.”

A negative impact on the formation of a collective position with respect to the safety rules and boring traditional forms of instruction. It is understandable the negative attitude of working for the organization of instruction, the form of the material is automatically transferred to them for the maintenance, depreciate it, creates psychological barriers to the rules, increasing the likelihood of traumatic situations.

Rationalization of training, including in the workplace, improving the forms of propaganda of safety rules on the production of not only promote the mastery of professional skills, but also form a positive attitude to safety measures.

Great opportunities to eliminate the socio-psychological prerequisites for occupational injuries lie in the judicious use of sanctions – rewards and punishments.

In everyday preventive work in the preparation of regulations, choosing the sanction, the cornerstone should be put not the fact of an accident, but the fact of violation of the rules of work. That is a measure of guilt and responsibility (penalty) must determine not only the consequences of violations – the existence of an accident and its severity – but the fact of improper actions and related circumstances. For the development of future preventive measures, including the selection of the sanctions, we must first determine what it is – a violation or error. Moreover, the error is also not exempt from liability.

We all know that not every violation leads to injury. There are a great element of randomness that allows the person to adapt to a breach of the rules. When a person knows that will be responsible for its own wrongful act regardless of the occasional successful or unfortunate circumstances, the responsibility it increases dramatically. Direct the contractor is not responsible for the accident and for their own actions. When this becomes the norm, the conventional wisdom, the number of violations is reduced.

To prevent injuries no less, and even more significant positive sanctions to encourage. On payment of accidents and accidents caused by improper actions of employees, yearly planned and spent considerable material resources. Accordingly, no violation gives great savings, increases profit organization. If workers receive part of it is, of course, it increases their interest in the observance of the Code of Conduct. Financial encouragement of employees for absence of violations, not just a “good work” promotes, encourages the observance of the rules, increases safety.

People who have received the award for safe work in the future much less violate safety requirements than fined or deprived of bonuses for breaking the rules.

Developing a system of sanctions in the field of safety, as indeed in many other areas, it is necessary to remember that
the sanctions are effective only when the person and the surrounding know exactly “what”;
the positive sanctions – Prizes and awards, just praise (especially if She expressed publicly), etc. are often more effective than negative, how severe would be the last either.

Managers need to understand the following: accident, because the case is called, due to the large number of factors, which are very difficult to estimate, anticipate, predict the consequences of their combinations. However, on this account and the anticipation based injury prevention as a phenomenon and security at each workplace.

The main task of the heads of various official status (lead levels) – to organize the work of subordinates, to be effective. Efficient work – it is work and productive without damaging the mental and physical health. Consequently, work on safety – an integral part of the job of any leader, specialist higher technical qualifications.