The accident  – the destruction of buildings and (or) technical devices used at hazardous production facilities, uncontrolled explosion and (or) release of hazardous substances.

Terms of the origin and consequences of accidents

The accident is often caused great damage to the environment. Thus,emergency water pollution  – pollution that occurs when a volley dischargepollutants into surface or underground water , which causes harm or threatens to cause harm to human health, poor implementation of economicand other activities of the natural environment and biodiversity .

The probability of an accident is called accident rate . As a result of wear and tear, lack of repair of damaged buildings, structures, equipment or vehicle exceeds a certain rate, say that the object is in the emergency phase . To prevent accidents and decommissioning emergency phase producepreventive maintenance .

Should an accident occur, the state of an object is called the emergency condition . Repair facility for the purpose of removing him from the emergency condition called emergency repairs . For example, the emergency repair ship – repair of the vessel conducted to address the causes and consequences ofdamage to the ship caused by the occurrence of accidents , and includes work, conduct which is necessary to ensure safe passage of the vessel to the nearest place of the meeting from the port . Emergency repairs are not possible for all accidents.

To mitigate or eliminate the consequences of the accident at the facilities provided for emergency protection . It includes a set of tools and methods by which the object or rapidly cleared from the emergency condition, or at least isolated to prevent harm to people or the environment. Thus, in nuclear reactors provided emergency protection of a nuclear reactor .

Unlike emergency protection task antiavariynoy security systems put preventing accidents at all.

Design basis accident forecast called an emergency condition, conducted under design object, a detailed consideration of the possible consequences, and by the design of the object of appropriate emergency protection and security systems.

For liquidation of consequences of the accident, the safety of people provided emergency rescue teams and emergency funds. rescue units  – independent or part of the emergency service structure is designed to conduct rescue operations, which is based on units of rescuers , equipped with special technology , products , including specializedcommunications and control , equipment, machinery, equipment, property and works as well as software and databases for electronic computers and other products intended for rescue operations.

On objects whose life cycle depends on the power supply (usually a variety of plants) provides emergency power source  – a source of electricity , designed to supply the emergency switchboard in the event of failure of the main power supply. Emergency switchboard delivers electricity necessary to eliminate the state of emergency, disaster mitigation or prevention of further development of the accident unit. One of the most common uses for emergency power source is emergency lighting  – lighting to ensure the continuation of the staff (security lighting), or evacuation of people from the area (escape lighting).

Technology-related accidents and disasters

In modern production with improved process parameters periodically, the conditions that lead to an unexpected disruption or breakdown of machinery, machines , communications facilities or systems. Such phenomena are called accidents.

Disaster  – if the accident threatens the life or health of people or cause loss of life

Not every incident leads to a crash, but the cause of almost all accidents are accidents.

The most dangerous consequences of accidents – fires, explosions, collapses and failures of energy – energy sources, nuclear power plants, chemical plants, leading to the destruction of the means of production. Most accidents are caused by human error. The most common consequences of accidents are fires and explosions.

To the petroleum, chemical and gas fumes cause accidents, oil spills, corrosive liquids and highly toxic substances. The number of accidents at these companies is growing every year. Over the past 30 years, the number of accidents has increased by 2.5 times. At the same time, the number of victims has increased 6 times, and the economic damage to 11 times. Such enterprises causing enormous damage to the environment. The cause of man-made disasters can be natural disasters, from defects in design, breach of a technical process.

The main causes of man-made disasters are:

  • The human factor.
  • Education Rights.
  • The relation of man to work.
  • Labor discipline.

Any accident or disaster can not happen for any one reason. All accidents – is the result of several causes combined and disadvantages.The most common variant is when the mistakes made in the design, interact with the mistakes made during installation, and are aggravated by incorrect use.

Prevention measures

Major measures ( effort ) of the person against accidents and disasters should be directed to their prevention and warning. The measures taken either exclude or localize technological accidents and disasters. The basis of such measures is to ensure the reliability of technological process .

Key measures ensure the reliability of the facility:

  • Meeting the requirements of the state standards and building codes, which are intended to minimize the risk of an accident.
  • Tough industrial discipline. Precise execution processes. Use of the equipment in strict accordance with its technical use.
  • Duplication and increase safety margins the most important elements of production.
  • Efficient organization of the inspection service control and security.
  • Careful selection of personnel, improvement of practical knowledge in the volume of work performed.
  • Evaluation of the conditions of production in terms of the possibility of an accident.

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