Psychology of safety in human activities

Preventing_accidents_2

On the safety of human influence, and his mental state: the existence of conflicts, fatigue, illness, dependence on drugs, alcohol, nicotine, especially the human psyche. In the presence of hazards (moving parts of machines, aisles clutter, poor lighting, etc.) and the depressed state of the human psyche may occur accidents.

Analysis of workplace injuries shows that the main cause of injuries and fatalities in the workplace – this is a bad mental state of workers in the performance of job duties. In such cases, it does not help the survival instinct or knowledge of the dangers of the work. It is also affected by overconfidence and overestimation of their own capabilities, which reduce a person’s attention and lead to a breach of safety rules. At the end of the working day and week in the human body accumulates fatigue and irritability, so in these times you need to be very careful and prudent when working.

In the prevention of occupational injuries is essential to ensure reliable and uninterrupted production process. Stop production, which can occur for various reasons, not only lead to a sharp decline in productivity, production losses, but also to a sharp deterioration of health and psychological personnel, give rise to various kinds of errors in the work, stress, increased risk of accidents and Injury Such production is accompanied by significant mental stress, disruption of the normal rhythm of work, workers’ disputes with colleagues and management.

On this basis, the instability of production, along with the security condition of the equipment and the working environment, considerable attention from management companies and its units should be given to improve the reliability of the human factor in the \ “man-machine-environment. \” It should not only improve the quality of teaching and coaching staff on safety, and above all implement appropriate psychological work in order to educate the workers in the safe operation of the psychology that they value every step and every action from the point of view of its safe performance.

Before the emergence of the accident, as a rule, to create certain dangerous situation when a person can realize the approach of such a case and can take the necessary measures to prevent it.The ability of human time to realize the dangerous situation and take adequate measures helps to avoid accidents and crashes. Man must anticipate, foresee the development of the labor process, the time to recognize a dangerous situation and prevent accidents. Sometimes such cases are dealt with as a consequence of inadequate behavior of the person in a dangerous situation.

Safety of human behavior on the production depends on the following factors:

– The state of unconditioned reflexes, that people unconsciously respond to a variety of dangers that threaten its body (such as willfully push hands from the hot object);

– Psycho-physiological qualities of man, which appear in its sensitivity to signals of danger, her speed to respond to such signals, in her emotional reactions to the danger, in the definition of an unsafe situation and responding to it (in the person’s behavior affects his emotional, mental and physical condition yes, anxiety aggravates the sense of danger, state of fatigue reduces the chances of a person with respect to the impact of the danger, and to counter it)

– Professional qualities and experience of the person, that is, knowledge of the profession and safety rules, experience;

– Motivation for safe work (different people have different motives to labor and safety measures)

Man – is a complex self-regulating system that can, depending on the situation, the flexibility to use their ability to achieve the results of labor and eliminate the danger. If a person has low biological, logical and physiological qualities to counteract the dangers it can guarantee security through the development of skills and high motivation for safety.

Sometimes the motives of certain benefits (time savings, increased production) exceed motives safety performance. It is worth morally and financially encourage workers to comply with safety requirements. Expenses for such encouragement justified the prevention of accidents. This will make safe work financially profitable. Work will earn more not only due to the productivity of labor, but also due to the fact that working safely in accordance with the instructions.

The instructions will be less if such violations do not become a source of particular benefit.Each violation of the instruction should not be overlooked. All employees should be aware that each violation of the instructions is punishable.

Injury can occur as a result of some of the shortcomings of the man himself: lack of knowledge, physical disability (illness, poor vision, hearing, etc.), Mental deficiencies (negligence, poor memory, etc.), As well as the particular circumstances (poor lighting, high or low air temperature, fatigue), affective state (trouble, strife, hurry).

Motivation for worker safety is enhanced when they are aware that the enterprise there is a strict control over the observance of safety rules, for high security status of workers financially and morally encouraged to be a condition of awarding work without traumas and accidents.

The remuneration of the heads of departments of the enterprise incentive fund can be paid only on condition that their sites and services that they are heading, there were injuries and violations of labor protection requirements, there are individual and collective protection, equipped with first-aid kits, etc.

It is advisable to conduct a lottery among the workers and the game (in the absence of violations of regulations, injuries and accidents). Working together determine the code numbers and regularly play prizes established and the administration. In the event of an injury or accident, the game stopped for a while. Practice shows that this game helps to reduce injuries.

Management companies should abandon the principle of \ “Production and safety of individual \” and move on to the principle of \ “Production in security \”, where security becomes a means of achieving production efficiency.

Policy in the field of occupational safety and health should be aimed at the collective search for ways to prevent accidents. Each in his place should make proposals in this direction. It is necessary to develop and psychological mood in the team on the safety motive education of safe work can be enhanced by its stimulation.

Note that the most important place in ensuring safety (along with the creation of more sophisticated technical means) takes the direct executor of works. Therefore, considerable attention and effective measures should be aimed at improving the mental and physical condition of the person.

Each team has a formal and informal leaders, which determine the ratio of workers to perform labor protection instructions.

It is necessary to form a correct attitude to the collective security by engaging opinion leaders to the activity of the authorized labor protection. Safety coincide with the objectives of the team and the production process. This leader must regularly remind workers. The authority of the head increases, if the instructions are not carried out through the administrative subordination, and as a result of awareness of their subordinates correctness. Compliance with safety requirements should be equally demanding from themselves and from each employee, without exception.

The cause of most accidents (75%) is the human factor, so the main focus of prevention efforts should be increased efficiency and conservation of its employees during working hours.An important focus of this work is early diagnosis of occupational diseases and disease of the nervous system, because the accident is the result of human failure into account the potential danger.

Perfect vision is an important condition for safety. A large part of accidents occur as a result of deficiencies, poor lighting walkways, driveways, area jobs. Uneven lighting requires frequent readaptation of what is necessary to 6.0 seconds, which can occur during an accident. A high background noise, hearing loss leads to rapid fatigue and untimely response to the sound signals.

The more tired man, the longer it takes the perception and response to a dangerous situation.

With age, the deteriorating physical condition of workers and they are often injured.

Are important features of the person: work activity, neatness, consciousness, systematic, self-reliance, self-criticism, attention, memory, logic, impulsivity, coordination, endurance, discipline, dedication, prudence, determination, a sense of duty, responsibility and confidence.

Reduced morbidity and maintaining the health of workers is an important social and economic problems. Radical action in this area is to improve the working conditions of treatment and preventive measures (health education, promotion of healthy lifestyles, production gymnastics, medical examination, etc.). This will reduce the level of injury, increase cost-efficiency in production.

Workers should know and follow safety instructions at work. However, in the instructions it is impossible to foresee everything. Ability to live much more difficult by the detailed instructions. Therefore it is very important to educate employees the ability to observe, to be careful and cautious.

Poll workers showed that most of them are the most common causes of injury imperfect organization of work, bad mood, fatigue, conflicts in the team, with the chiefs, the heads of inattention to his subordinates, poor psychological climate.

Significant impact on the operating performance of the disruptions of work and rest.Therefore, in determining the working time schedules need to be variable so that the duration of rest between shifts of workers, taking into account inter-changeable breaks, was not less than twice the duration of the working time of the previous shift. Installed legislation working time can not be altered even with the consent of the administration of the employee.

Given that operating errors during operation may threaten the life and health of both the workers and others, the requirements for its performance should be high enough. Most employees at the end of the change of fatigue, increases the likelihood of traumatic situation, so strict compliance with applicable laws and regulations of work and rest is very important.

The state of health, performance, reliability, large impact human biorhythms. It is known that the human body has more than a hundred different rhythmic processes, recently got a lot of publications and efficiency in the regulation of work and rest of workers taking into account the three sine waves with periods of 23, 28 and 33 days, characterizing the state of the physical (health, energy), emotionally th (mood, reaction) and intellectual (intelligence, memory).

Each of the cycles that are deducted from the time of birth are two periods; positive – and negative first half – second half. Day of the transition from one period to another is called \ “critical \” or \ “zero \”, that is, it is believed that on this day (especially when matching \ “critical \” days in three different cycles), the probability of accidents is greatly increased. However, a thorough analysis of the effectiveness of this method showed no direct relationship accidents from these biorhythms.

More affect the likelihood of accidents other well-studied biological rhythms, including daily, weekly, seasonal. Significant impact on the human performance have to sleep at night. Lack of sleep causes drowsiness during the day shift. It is known, for example, that 45% of traffic violations by drivers is a result of falling asleep at the wheel. This once again confirms the need for compliance physiologically sound regime of work and rest of workers, especially those employed in shift work.

In order to prevent accidents and diseases promote safe work practices. Adopt the methods of agitation and mass education: briefings, lectures, discussions, films, radio programs, on issues of safety; widely used posters, memos, etc. Posters perpetuate in the minds of the working correct and safe work practices.

Effective form of promotion of occupational safety and health are a public review, conducted by the Administration in cooperation with trade union activists is important to use such forms of propaganda, as the exhibition stands, corners   on safety.

However, more effective methods are not listed, and the formation of the motives that cause an employee to observe safety regulations are not, because I need a leader, but because this is the desire to own, attitudes to safe operation. This setting is achieved by improving the psychological climate, attracting workers to the safety control work, educational work, personal example, managers themselves.